The White House later confirmed Trump had signed it into law.
Video: President Trump said January 25 there's a "good chance" negotiations with congressional leaders would include funding a wall to avoid another shutdown on February 15.
"Walls should not be controversial", he said.
The influential conservative news website Drudge Report in a banner headline made a point of saying the deal contained "No Wall Funds".
Trump's retreat came in the 35th day of the partial shutdown as intensifying delays at the nation's airports and a missed payday for hundreds of thousands of federal workers brought new urgency to efforts to resolve the standoff.
Standard & Poor's (S&P) released a report titled 'U.S. Government Shutdown Ends, But At What Cost?' on Friday.
"Democrats are firmly against the wall", Schumer said.
"I do have to say that I'm optimistic", echoed House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. "And that is what maybe the president underestimated". Whatever negotiations restart next, Trump enters them from a weakened position.
It's unclear if polls had any meaningful impact on Trump's capitulation on the shutdown.
Justin Bogie, senior policy analyst at the Heritage Foundation, told Xinhua that all indications are that Trump "would declare a national emergency if border security negotiations fail".
As part of the deal, a bipartisan committee of House and Senate lawmakers is being formed to review border security recommendations. Advisers watched in shock as Trump declared in a December meeting with lawmakers that he would be "proud" to shut down the government. "We will build the Wall!"
Trump came to an agreement with Democrats to support a measure to re-open the government and, separately, negotiate a plan for border security.More news: Reigning US Open champ Osaka survives scare in Melbourne
Schumer said Democrats oppose the wall money but agree on other ways to secure the border "and that bodes well for coming to an eventual agreement". Trump signed it later Friday night.
The shutdown battle left scars on Trump. On Saturday, Dobbs predicted that the president's approval ratings would drop even more. "The president is sticking by his commitment to keep our communities safe and has assured me that nothing will deter him from accomplishing that goal". Aides prepared the Rose Garden event without knowing for sure what he would say.
The stopgap spending bill would include an extension of border security funding at current levels, which includes $1.3 billion for border security but not expressly for a wall.
Media captionOther presidents got money for a border barrier - why not Trump?
Senators were talking with increased urgency after Thursday's defeat of competing proposals from Trump and the Democrats.
Pressure has been building among both parties to reopen agencies immediately and pay hundreds of thousands of beleaguered federal workers while bargainers hunt for a deal.
The Trump administration recalled 26,000 IRS workers this week to handle the looming tax filing season.
Meanwhile, thousands of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) employees failed to show up after they were ordered to return to work unpaid, the Washington Post reported. He suggested he'd also want a "prorated down payment" for his long-sought border wall with Mexico but didn't describe the term. In the subsequent weeks, Republicans largely supported the president through the shutdown, incurring the wrath of some constituents and achieving nothing in the end.
Still, the president enjoys a following in Utah that he's not seeing across the rest of the country.
Similar percentages support the Democrats investigating Trump's alleged collusion with Russian Federation in the 2016 campaign (57%), his suspected ties with foreign governments (61%), and his relationship with Vladimir Putin (59%).
He added that his border wall is needed "for national security" but admitted it won't be easy negotiating with Democratic leaders.